Process: moderation and mediation in Excel
This tutorial will show you how to run and interpret a mediation model in Excel using the XLSTAT statistical software.
Dataset for mediation analysis
The original data came from a questionnaire completed by employees in the industry sector. The dataset contains, for 20 individuals, a measure of empowering leadership that was derived from criteria such as the meaning of work, participation in decision-making, confidence in high performance, and autonomy. The data table also contains a measure of job well-being and organizational commitment for each of the employees.
The purpose is to explain organizational commitment as a function of empowering leadership. Workplace well-being will be considered as a potential mediator of the relationship between empowering leadership and organizational commitment.
Setting up the mediation model
Select the Advanced features / Marketing tools / Process: moderation and mediation. The Process: Moderation and Mediation dialog box appears.
Select the model number associated with the mediation model (the corresponding number is 4).
You can then select the data on the Excel sheet. Here, the Dependent variable (or variable to model) is the organizational commitment.
The Explanatory Variable corresponds to empowering leadership. Here we want to explain the variability of organizational commitment as a function of empowering leadership.
In Mediator variable(s), select the Well-Being column. We want to test whether job well-being can be considered a mediator of the effect of empowering leadership on organizational commitment.
As the name of each variable is displayed at the top of the table, we must check the Variable labels checkbox.
The computations begin once you have clicked on the OK button.
Interpreting the results of a mediation model
The "Direct effect of X on Y" table gives the value of the estimate of the direct effect of X on Y as well as various elements (confidence interval, Student's t) that allow us to conclude that the direct effect is not significant.
The "Indirects effects of X on Y" table provides details about the indirect effect present in the model. Here, since the value 0 is not included in the confidence interval, the indirect effect is considered significant.
Conclusion on the mediation model
The mediation model formed between empowering leadership, job well-being, and organizational commitment was found to be significant, meaning that there is a causal relationship between these 3 variables: empowering leadership has an effect on job well-being, and the latter then influences organizational commitment.
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